By R. L. Trask

This dictionary of grammatical phrases covers either present and conventional terminology in syntax and morphology. It comprises descriptive phrases, the key theoretical techniques of the main influential grammatical frameworks, and the manager phrases from mathematical and computational linguistics. It comprises over 1500 entries, delivering definitions and examples, pronunciations, the earliest resources of phrases and proposals for additional studying, and proposals approximately competing and conflicting usages. The booklet makes a speciality of non-theory-boumd descriptive phrases, that are prone to stay present for a few years.
Aimed at scholars and academics of linguistics, it permits a reader questioned through a grammatical time period to appear it up and find additional examining comfortably.

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R/a 'storm is nominarivcand drrevo 'tre€' is accusative. has a coEespondingimpersonalpassive Burcjpovalilo derceo'Thetree waskncked do*fl through the typhoon . during which 6arel isinstrumentaland d? /. ,yois nonetheless accusative. rherebeing no floor topic. there's a few controversyoler how a long way to increase the term'impersonal passive';some could extcnd it to constructionslike the Frcnch (rt yenditla naiso"'The hcruservar sold'. ljterally'Onc offered the house'. which differs frorir a canonical energetic transilive in basic terms within the presenceof the impcrsonalsubject pronoun,n. SeeSic\rierska (l'rl(4. )lor discu*run e a incorporadoo a ;nalienablek. ki'i o P@ 'Pus's picrure,(i. e. , of herl, and na i|/i o Pu, 'Pua'sbones'(e. nine. , which sheis eating),contrastingwith rrarpi o Pud 'Pua'sbones'(i. e. , her personal bones). Cf. aliensbl€po6s. ssiod. l_ a_ a_ ilanimate /rn'enrmot/ adt. Denoting a noun or noun pbrasewhich i\ oth€r than &nimsrc. suchasone denotrnga r .. lessobiect, a planr, an abstraclionor a nominalizarion. ,_- e e inceptiv€ /rn scptrv/Seeinchoative. , c a t ( c ( ( inchoative /rn'kauatrv/ n. ot adj. (also inc? ptive, iryrtsdv. ) a particular aspedual shape expressing the b€ginning of a kingdom or activity-Japanes€,for example,has a producriveverbal af6x _d4r& for €xpr€ssing inchoative element hanoshidasu,start to speak, (/undfii 'ralk"), tabedosu 'start to consume' (rabelu ,eat'), fi. /r'lara . stan to rrin' (fir! rain ). l-atin has aclass ofinchoative veris in -sc-:tremescerc 'slan to tremble' (retn e/e 'tremble'), sirercer" . develop into silent' (nLre 'be silenr'!. obdom\cere nod off {doznjfp . steep). inclusive first individual /rn,klu:sw/ 'l. a particular pronomioal shape taking place in a few languages which expresses the meaaing 'I and also you (and very likely orhers) and cootrasrinqthrre wilh a; elclLsivcfirsr persoD. Seeexamplesunder the lane; access. incorporating language /rn,kcrparertl0/r. A languageiD which incorporaaion (sense I or 2) is promioent. Incorporating languages are so much widespread in Siberia and in North the United States. Nft: CoErie (1981)re@mhen(ls rdrrictinSrhisrem ro languag€s displainSin@rpoiarion in experience I andlabeuing theothe6polysyDtnedc. ( implicstional common /rmplr'kcrJenl/n. Any absoluteor r€lativc univelsal that's expresscdin the shape If a ianSuagehas ( characteristicX, then h alsohascharacterisric Y . An exampleis: if € a languagehas VSO uncomplicated notice ord€r. then it has prepositions (rather than posttlositions). lnplicational univcrsalswere intro f ducedby Greenberg(1963)and havc becn such a lot exrensivclydevei- t oped by means of Hawkins(1983). ( - impr:ecatiye Am'prekelv/ n. An utterance. elpecially an obscenc or blasphemousone. intendcd essentially to provide offencc: Pisso. /f/; Flcrk _toulThedisrinctive synraroI rheseuneranccs is tested br Jam€! Mccawleyin his bilariousbul veryob*ene l97l paper. $rinen underIhe F- l' OuangPhucDong. Feudonym € c, I el I inalienable ownership /rn'erlienlbt/ fl. A iype of possess;ve I constnrctionin which the possesseditem can't in precept te separar€dfrom th€ possessor: air. r e_r.

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