By M. I. Finley
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A legislations of 204 B. C. prohibited barristers from taking charges or from going to courtroom to recuperate funds from their consumers on any pretext. any such legislations used to be now not simply enforced, and violations are on list. now not on Cicero's point, notwithstanding, for the easy cause that the good Republican barristers and jurisconsults had little need for charges. "If Cicero did a shopper proud the client's handbag, associates and impression will be to be had to Cicero later at call," 60 accurately as though he had lent a fellow-politician 2,ooo,ooo sesterces interest-free. This used to be now not the case in Rome with the opposite professions (in our sense). The jurist Julian, writing within the moment century after Christ, laid down the next rule (Digest 38. 1. 27): "If a freedman includes at the alternate of a pantomimist, he needs to provide his prone free of charge not just to his client but in addition for the diversion of the latter's neighbors. within the similar method, a freedman who practises drugs needs to, at his patron's request, deal with the latter's pal for gratis. " The prestige of medical professionals in reality assorted vastly in several sessions and areas of the traditional global. one of the Greeks they have been more often than not esteemed, additionally lower than the Roman Empire, yet one of the Romans themselves the career drew its practitioners principally from slaves, freedmen and foreigners, sixty one in order that Julian's contemplating medical professionals along the very low-grade career of pantomimist was once no mere gratuitous insult. to date, in sum, Cicero the moralist has proved to be now not a foul advisor to winning values. The argument turns into tougher once we flip to trade and manufacture, in many ways the nub of the matter. A detrimental argument is usually tough to verify. It needs to be conceded that the traditional assets are distorted through incompleteness and partiality; that there has been evasion of 58 the traditional economic climate the Ciceronian code via silent partnerships and during slaveand freedman-agents. eighty one those are valid issues, even though they generally descend to illegitimate conjecture: Why may still the pragmateutai of the Piraeus have erected a statue to the spouse of Herodes Atticus (the wealthiest and strongest guy in Athens within the moment century A. D. )? , asks one student, and he replies, with none warrant: simply because they have been the industrial brokers of Herodes. eighty three The decisive aspect· is still that, opposed to the really few identified situations of silent partnerships and related units, no longer a unmarried trendy equestrian should be pointed out "who used to be essentially a service provider" eighty four or any equites "who have been themselves lively within the grain exchange or engaged in my opinion in sea-borne trade" eighty five- even equites, not to mention senators. Landowners have been after all interested by the sale in their produce (unless their lands have been leased to tenants), involved via their bailiffs and stewards, like Pericles' guy Evangelus, and in Italy not less than, if their land integrated solid clay-pits, brickmaking and tilemaking received the prestige of agriculture. for that reason "brickmaking is virtually the one at Rome within which the aristocrat doesn't hesitate to reveal his connections with the gains of a factory,.
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