When Indian University—now Bacone College—opened its doorways in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) in 1880, it used to be a small Baptist establishment designed to coach younger local americans to be lecturers and Christian missionaries between their very own humans and to behave as brokers of cultural assimilation. From 1927 to 1957, although, Bacone collage replaced path and pursued a brand new technique of emphasizing the Indian identities of its scholars and projecting often-romanticized photographs of Indianness to the non-Indian public in its fund-raising campaigns. funds used to be funneled again into the college as directors employed local American school who in flip created cutting edge curricular courses in tune and the humanities that inspired their scholars to discover and strengthen their local identities. via their common use of humor and artistic wordplay to reference Indianness—“Indian play”—students articulated the (often contradictory) implications of being trained Indians in mid-twentieth-century the USA. during this supportive and artistic tradition, Bacone turned an “Indian school,” instead of simply one other “school for Indians.”

In studying how and why this alteration happened, Lisa okay. Neuman situates the scholars’ Indian play inside better theoretical frameworks of cultural creativity, ideologies of authenticity, and counterhegemonic practices which are valuable to the fields of local American and indigenous experiences today.

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273 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Illustrations MAPS 1. Indian Territory, displaying destinations of tribes and Indian college, 1885 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty four 2. Bacone campus, 1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIGURES 1. pink Men’s Glee membership exposure brochure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Almon C. Bacone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty-one three. Rockefeller corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty nine four. Benjamin D. Weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty eight five. Princess Ataloa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three 6. younger Princess Ataloa in gown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine 7. women’ Glee membership, 1930 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eighty eight. The making a song Redmen, 1937 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 nine. Ataloa inn Museum external and inside, 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10. Ataloa instructing artwork to scholars in inn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a hundred and five 11. Alumnus and instructor Acee Blue Eagle on campus . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 12. President Weeks utilizing the outdoors baptistery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 thirteen. Indian membership, college of Redlands, 1936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 14. Aerial photo of Bacone campus, 1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 15. Bacone Indian membership, 1942–43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 sixteen. Earl Riley in later lifestyles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred thirty 17. application conceal, graduation routines, 1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 18. Francis W. Thompson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a hundred forty five 19. caricature and plea for brand spanking new bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 20. caricature by way of Dick West, 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 21. “Ol Injun” comic strip by means of Dick West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 22. Oklahoma struggle Dancers through Acee Blue Eagle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 23. Woody Crumbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 24. Woody Crumbo at paintings in his Bacone studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred seventy five 25. Acee Blue Eagle in dress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred eighty 26. Dick West appearing Indian signal language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 27. Alice Spinks educating weaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 28. Morning big name rite via Marlene driving In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 29. Creek Ball video game through Noah Deere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 30. sketch in protest of beans by means of Dick West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 31. sketch, “Wild Onion Season,” through scholar Bert Preston . . . . . . 223 32. caricature by means of scholar Acee Blue Eagle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 33. caricature via scholar Bert Preston, 1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 34. Dick West educating Indian membership dancers, 1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 35. Bacone Indian membership, 1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 36. Indian Christ in Gethsemane by means of Dick West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Preface I engaged quite a few study strategies in the course of my fieldwork in Oklahoma, which was once performed from January 1994 till December 1995.

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