By Rami Rosen

Linux Kernel Networking takes you on a guided in-depth travel of the present Linux networking implementation and the idea at the back of it. Linux kernel networking is a fancy subject, so the booklet will not burden you with subject matters in a roundabout way concerning networking. This ebook also will no longer overload you with bulky line-by-line code walkthroughs in some way concerning what you are looking for; you will find simply what you would like, with in-depth causes in every one bankruptcy and a brief reference on the finish of every chapter.

Linux Kernel Networking is the single up to date reference advisor to figuring out how networking is carried out, and it'll be essential in future years due to the fact such a lot of units now use Linux or working platforms in keeping with Linux, like Android, and because Linux is so known within the facts middle area, together with Linux-based virtualization applied sciences like Xen and KVM.

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Dev), IPSTATS_MIB_FRAGFAILS); forty five CHAPTER three N web regulate MESSAGE PROTOCOL (ICMP) icmp_send(skb, ICMP_DEST_UNREACH, ICMP_FRAG_NEEDED, htonl(dst_mtu(&rt->dst))); goto drop; } ... } (net/ipv4/ip_forward. c) Code five: ICMP_SR_FAILED while forwarding a packet with the stern routing alternative and gatewaying set, a “Destination Unreachable” message with ICMP_SR_FAILED code is distributed again, and the packet is dropped: int ip_forward(struct sk_buff *skb) { struct ip_options *opt = &(IPCB(skb)->opt); ... if (opt->is_strictroute && rt->rt_uses_gateway) goto sr_failed; ... sr_failed: icmp_send(skb, ICMP_DEST_UNREACH, ICMP_SR_FAILED, 0); goto drop; } (net/ipv4/ip_forward. c) For a whole checklist of all IPv4 “Destination Unreachable” codes, see desk 3-1 within the “Quick Reference” part on the finish of this bankruptcy. notice consumer can configure a few principles with the iptables REJECT goal and the --reject-with qualifier, that could ship “Destination Unreachable” messages in keeping with the choice; extra within the “Quick Reference” part on the finish of this bankruptcy. either the icmp_reply() and the icmp_send() tools aid cost restricting; they name icmpv4_xrlim_allow(), and if the speed proscribing money permits sending the packet (the icmpv4_xrlim_allow() returns true), they ship the packet. it's going to be pointed out right here that price proscribing isn't really played instantly on every kind of site visitors. listed below are the stipulations less than which fee restricting fee aren't played: u The message kind is unknown. u The packet is of PMTU discovery. u The equipment is a loopback gadget. u The ICMP style isn't really enabled within the fee masks. If most of these stipulations aren't matched, cost proscribing is played by means of calling the inet_peer_xrlim_allow() process. You’ll locate extra details approximately fee masks within the “Quick Reference” part on the finish of this bankruptcy. Let’s glance contained in the icmp_send() strategy. First, this is often its prototype: void icmp_send(struct sk_buff *skb_in, int kind, int code, __be32 information) forty six CHAPTER three N web keep watch over MESSAGE PROTOCOL (ICMP) skb_in is the SKB which triggered the invocation of the icmp_send() technique, variety and code are the ICMPv4 message sort and code, respectively. The final parameter, details, is utilized in the subsequent circumstances: u For the ICMP_PARAMETERPROB message kind it's the offset within the IPv4 header the place the parsing challenge happened. u For the ICMP_DEST_UNREACH message variety with ICMP_FRAG_NEEDED code, it's the MTU. u For the ICMP_REDIRECT message variety with ICMP_REDIR_HOST code, it's the IP handle of the vacation spot handle within the IPv4 header of the frightening SKB. whilst additional taking a look into the icmp_send() technique, first there are a few sanity exams. Then multicast/broadcast packets are rejected. A payment of no matter if the packet is a fraction is played via analyzing the frag_off box of the IPv4 header. If the packet is fragmented, an ICMPv4 message is distributed, yet just for the 1st fragment. in accordance with part four. three. 2. 7 of RFC 1812, an ICMP mistakes message must never be despatched because the results of receiving an ICMP mistakes message.

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