By Roderick S. Bucknell

This ebook is designed to function a handy quick-reference advisor to the grammar of classical sanskrit, for using college scholars and others. it's not meant to be an entire grammar of the language.

This booklet additionally offers crucial reference info in Tables. Romanized transcription is used all through, and a few cutting edge modes of description and presentation are followed. This handbook may be chanced on a precious, 'user-friendly' better half to present grammars, similar to Whitney's. notwithstanding basically meant for beginers and intermediate scholars, it will likely be of use to students operating with Sanskrit at any point.

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Bhrätä 'brother', jämätä 'son-in-law'. although, naptä 'nephew' follows [4]. [6] marut 'wind-god': Masc. and female nouns and adjectives whose quotation shape has ultimate -k, -t, or -p; additionally, masc. of current energetic participles in -at- — yet now not of these in -ant- (which keep on with [12]), nor of the possessive adjectives in -mat- or -vat(which persist with [13]). for instance, sarvaáak 'omnipotent', sarit 'stream', bibhrat 'carrying', dharmagup 'guardian of the law'. The stem-final -k, -t, or -p is preserved during the para­ digm, other than that prior to the six case-endings that start with bh it turns into voiced to -g, -d, -b; e. g. marut has instrumental twin marudbhyäm. [7] vanik 'merchant': Masc. and fem. nouns and adjectives whose quotation shape results in a consonant except -k, -t, -p, -h, -n, or -as; e. g. the phrases stated as vani;, priyaväc, trishiWi, dis, upana/¡. the ultimate consonant of the quotation shape is preserved in these caseforms during which it really is by way of a vowel; e. g. , vani;', tristufr/j, dis, and vis have nominative plural vani/ah, tristu/j/zah, disah, and visah respectively. even if, within the nominative singular the place no sound follows, this consonant is changed by way of a few roughly heavily similar consonant from one of the set of 5 authorised non-nasal word-finals, -k, -t, -t, -p, -h (see web page 1); e. g. , vani;, tristuWi, dis, and vis have singular nomina­ tive vaniA:, tristup, diк and vii respectively. because the example of diá and viá indicates, it isn't consistently attainable to foretell which of the 4 approved word-final stops will change the stem-final of the citation-form. The opposite is usually actual; e. g. , vanik and dik are from vani; and dis respectively. accordingly dictionaries often point out the nominative singular along the quotation shape. For useful reasons the way in which of specifying the 2 consonants concerned with the alternation is to call the nomina­ tive singular and plural; e. g. vanik—vanijah. as soon as those types are identified, the complete paradigm is understood. the 1st of the 2 consonants named (k in our instance) happens the place no sound follows (i. e. within the nominative and vocative singular) and ahead of the -su or -su of the locative plural; and it turns into voiced (to g) prior to the six -bh- case-endings. (For the needs of this rule, the voiced counterpart of h is r. ) the second one of the 2 consonants named (j in our instance) happens ahead of all vowel case-endings. it's as a result a good idea to think about phrases of this sort when it comes to their nominative singular and plural (which, as a minimum, are the main in most cases taking place forms); i. e. one should still study the phrases as 'vanifc—vani/ah', 'dik—disah', and so forth. Examples of the main common such pairs of consonants are set out within the following record. For completeness the 3 consonant-finals lined through [6] are integrated, because they're fairly merely detailed instances of the current style. okay— okay: ok— c: к jк—á: к—s: sarvaáaк—sarvaáa/cah väk—väcah vaniк—vani;ah diк—disah dadhrfc—dadhrsah 'omnipotent' 'voice' 'merchant' 'compass-point' 'bold' k—h: kamadhu/c—kamadu/iah 'wish-granting' t-j: t—s: t—s: t—h: samräi—samrä/ah vii—visah dvii—dvisah madhulif—madhuli/iah 'ruler' 'resident' 'enemy' 'bee' t—t: t—d: t—dh: t—h: maruf—marufah äpat—äpadah samif—samirf/iah upanaf—upana/iah 'wind-god' 'calamity' 'faggot' 'sandal' P—P: p—bh: dharmagup—dharmagupah tristup—tristub/iah 'guardian of legislations' 'a Vedic metre' h—r: h—s: dväh—dvärah doh—dosah 'door' 'arm' mild departures from the trend defined above take place within the final varieties indexed.

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