The highpoint of German Expressionism within the moment decade of the 20th century coincided with a swift elevate within the availability of cocaine because the drug was once stockpiled for scientific reasons by way of armies battling the 1st global struggle. Snow from damaged Eyes investigates the consequences of this ancient intersection for the lives and works of 3 poets linked to Expressionism: Gottfried Benn, Walter Rheiner and Georg Trakl. All 3 are identified to have used the drug through the struggle, even though below very diversified situations, and the cocaine references contained of their works are both various. those variety from demonstrative declarations of drug use (Benn), through agonized textual re-enactments of the addict’s humiliation and discomfort (Rheiner), to the mixing of drug symbolism into an unique, deeply resonant poetic code (Trakl). during this examine, the findings bobbing up from shut readings of key works by means of Benn, Rheiner and Trakl are contextualized in relation either to the longstanding historic organization among psychoactive elements and innovative literature, and to the novel concepts in literary kind that characterised the early 20th century.

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157 Whereas Trakl’s urge for food – or constitutional want – for transcendence via intoxication used to be such that he may attempt nearly any drug on hand, and certainly went out of his solution to achieve entry to a great number of diversified ones (see 7. 1), Rheiner’s dependancy used to be ‘limited’ to 2 ingredients: cocaine and morphine. symptoms of periodic alcohol abuse is additionally pointed out, yet nowhere is that this given specific weight. sixty seven bills clash in regards to the historical past of his use of cocaine and morphine. Rietzschel records that Rheiner’s cocaine dependence started in 1914, and that he grew to become hooked on morphine 5 years later (1–2). This chronology seems to be borne out, with the numerous insertion of a longer interval of abstinence among 1916 and 1919, in a press release to the Cologne courtroom filed by means of Fo’s attorney W. Weinand within the divorce complaints. this is often dated 6 February 1925: Der Beklagte struggle bis zum Jahre 1916 Kokainist und ist 1916 vollständig geheilt entlassen worden. Die diesbezüglichen Akten liegen in der Krankenanstalt Lindenburg in Köln und können vom Gericht zugezogen werden, used to be hierdurch beantragt wird. Dass der Beklagte Kokainist gewesen conflict, hat sowohl der Beklagte als auch seine Mutter der Klägerin mitgeteilt. Vor 1919 ist der Beklagte jedoch niemals Morphinist gewesen. Dieses Laster hat er erst Mitte 1919 ausgeübt und gibt er selbst in seinem Schriftsatze vom 12. Januar 1925 zu, dass er seit mehreren Jahren Morphinist sei. Die Parteien haben im Jahre 1918 geheiratet, zur damaligen Zeit conflict der Beklagte, der wie schon ausgeführt ist, nur dem Kokainismus gefrönt hatte, schon seit 1916 vollkommen geheilt. Im Herbst 1919, nachdem die Parteien etwa 1½ Jahr lang verheiratet waren und er sich in der ersten Zeit intestine geführt hatte, begann er Morphium zu spritzen und hat seit dieser Zeit nicht nur nicht für seine Frau und das style gesorgt, sondern auch eine ganze Reihe von betrügerischen Handlungen begangen, um Geld in die Finger zu bekommen, um so zu Morphium zu gelangen. (K a hundred and fifteen) sixty seven 158 Fo’s divorce legal professional documents, ‘während seiner Morphiumentziehungen gab er [Rheiner] sich dauernd der sinnlosesten Trunkenheit hin und schlug in diesem Zustande auch die Klägerin häufig’ (K 116). regardless of this allegation of actual violence linked to Rheiner’s alcohol abuse, the attorney attributes in simple terms minor value to this vice, that's specially impressive against this with the distinct background of his cocaine and morphine use given within the similar record. yet another allusion to alcohol abuse are available in Rheiner’s ultimate letter to his mom of three June 1925, within which he writes, ‘ich bin gottseidank nicht rückfällig, weder in den alten Giften, noch etwa in Alkohol’ (KLPB 281). certainly Fo’s vested curiosity in demonstrating that Rheiner was once ‘clean’ on the time in their marriage has to be borne in brain the following (had she knowingly married a junkie, she might have been held a minimum of in part chargeable for the failure of the marriage). sixty eight significantly, Weinand’s case heritage used to be written explicitly according to a contradictory model in Rheiner’s personal submission of twenty-two January 1925: ‘Der Beklagte gibt an, […] er sei bereits im Jahre 1916 Morphinist und Kokainist gewesen sei [sic].

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