By Will Durant
The Age of Voltaire, the 9th quantity of the tale of Civilization, is an in-depth exam of France and England within the first half the eighteenth century. during this masterful paintings, listeners will come upon the English principles that encouraged the Enlightenment in France; the salons of Paris, the place the wits and thinkers of all Europe collected to switch rules; the philosophes-- intellectuals and artists who consulted with kings and queens; Voltaire himself, the incarnation of the Enlightenment; Mme. Pompadour, who seduced Louis XV and during him stimulated French coverage; the Augustan Age in English literature; and the transforming into parasitism of the aristocracy and emerging strength of the industrial type.
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Extra resources for The Age of Voltaire: A History of Civilization in Western Europe from 1715 to 1756, with Special Emphasis on the Conflict between Religion and Philosophy (The Story of Civilization IX)
Persecution of the recent sect got here a ways much less from the confirmed Church than from the easy commoners who couldn't tolerate new methods of preaching previous principles. on the town after city the open-air preachers—like their later opposite numbers preaching a brand new social gospel—were assaulted via mobs chuffed to be merciless with out worry and with out reproach. At Monmouth a lay preacher used to be struck at the head by way of a rock, and died of the blow. At Wednesbury a crowd wrecked the houses of Methodists, abused their ladies, beat their males. whilst Wesley seemed it cried out for his blood, and applauded those that cudgeled him; he prayed aloud, and it enable him move. At Bolton the home the place he was once preaching was once invaded through an indignant assemblage; amid a bath of stones, tiles, and eggs he persisted his sermon to the top. At Devizes a water engine used to be became upon the place of abode of Charles Wesley, and bulldogs have been loosed upon his fans. At Exeter Whitefield was once stoned nearly to dying. At Hoxton an ox used to be prodded right into a Methodist congregation; at Pensford a bull, maddened through baiting, was once pushed complete opposed to the desk at which John Wesley used to be preaching. The braveness of the preachers appealed to the British personality, and received them tolerance and help. Wesley used to be a bit guy 5 toes 3 inches tall, weighing 128 kilos. He used to be notable in outdated age by means of his white hair, yet already in center age he arrested recognition through his ascetic chiseled good points and dominating eyes. He took it without any consideration that he was once made to manipulate; his frightened power and highbrow strength placed him certainly within the lead; his unquestioning self-confidence occasionally carried him to a conceit Methodist bishop reported really “overbearing. ”63 He used to be now not a simple guy to get in addition to, for he concept and moved too quick for others to maintain his velocity. He married in 1751, having fallen in love, as all of us do, with the nurse who tended him in disorder. for 2 years his spouse traveled with him on his annoying rounds; then her future health and nerves broke down and she or he left him, as one may bounce from an unmanageable steed. He attributed his well-being and power to his perpetual trips on horseback or foot; maybe we must always upload that oratory is an aerating workout. In 1735 he turned a vegetarian; a yr later he and a chum made up our minds to live to tell the tale bread on my own, to “try no matter if existence will possibly not besides be sustained by means of one type as by means of number of foodstuff. We … have been by no means extra lively and fit than once we tasted not anything else”;64 yet they quickly relapsed into variety. What have been the result of the Methodist preaching? in a single new release faith, which had looked to be demise less than Anglican dignity and deist doubts, grew to become a colourful point in English lifestyles, subordinate purely to politics and struggle. At Wesley’s loss of life (1791) his fans numbered 79,000 in England, 40,000 in North the US; in 1957 there have been 2,250,000 Methodists in nice Britain, 12,000,000 within the usa, 40,000,000 on the earth. sixty five outdoor of its personal club it prompted different denominations; so, within the Anglican Church that defied Methodism, Methodist beliefs aroused the Evangelical stream within the later half the eighteenth century, and should have entered into the Oxford circulate of the 19th.
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